The region was formed in 1973 and is located in the southwestern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan, bordered in the northeast by Atyrau and Aktobe regions, in the west by sea with the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan and Iran, in the south with Turkmenistan and in the east by Uzbekistan .
The territory of the region is 165.6 thousand square meters. km (6.1% of the total area of Kazakhstan, 7th place out of 14 regions). The population of the region as of 01.10.2017 is 655 192 people.
The length of the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea in the territory of the Mangystau region is 874 km.
The relief of the region is diverse. The northern half is occupied by the Caspian lowland, occupied by the mountains Zheltau (221 m), Mynsualmas (148 m) and sandy massifs (Karakum, Sam and others), extensive salt marshes (Olikoltyk, Kaidak, Karaduli, Karakesh and others) and the Buzachi Peninsula. The central part is occupied by the Mangystau peninsula, where there are the Mangystau mountains (Aktau 556 m, Karatau, 562 m), the Mangystau plateau and the deepest basin in the CIS Karakiya (132 m). In the south-west is the Kendirli-Kayasanskoe plateau, in the south — the Karynzharyk depression. The east of the region is occupied by the Ustyurt plateau.
The subsoil is rich in oil, gas, phosphate, coal, manganese, various salts, and shell rock.
The climate is continental, extremely dry. The average temperature in January is –14, –19 ° C, July +26, + 40 ° C. Annual precipitation is 100-150 mm.
The administrative-territorial division of the Mangystau region is represented by 3 cities (Aktau, a single-industry town of Zhanaozen of regional significance, a small town of Fort-Shevchenko of regional importance), 5 districts, 46 rural districts, 61 rural populations.